The Social Workers as Consultant: Bibliography

The Social Workers as Consultant: Bibliography

Consultant: A New Role for the Social Worker


Cohen, W. A. (2009). How to Make It Big As a Consultant. New York: American Management                 Association.

Bellot, J. (2011), Defining and Assessing Organizational Culture. Nursing Forum, 46: 29–37. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-6198.2010.00207.x

Schein, Edgar H.. (2010). Organizational culture and leadership, fourth edition. Jossey-Bass

Hardcastle, D. A., Powers, P. R., & Wenocur, S. (2011). Community Practice : Theories and Skills for     Social Workers. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Institute for Career, R. (2005). A Career As a Social Worker. Chicago: Institute for Career Research.

Weiss, A. (2003). Organizational Consulting : How to Be an Effective Internal Change Agent.   Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley.

Smelser, William T, (2010). Personality and social systems.Hoboken, NJ, US: John Wiley & Sons Inc. xi, 660 pp.

Kalipso M. Karantinou, Margaret K. Hogg, (2010). An empirical investigation of relationship    development in professional business services, Journal of Services Marketing, Vol. 23 Iss: 4,     pp.249 – 260

Schneider, S., & Weinberg, H. (2003). The Large Group Re-visited : The Herd, Primal Horde, Crowds   and Masses. London: Jessica Kingsley.

Nash, S. (2003). Be a Successful Consultant : An Insider Guide to Setting up and Running a Consultancy Practice. Oxford: How To Books.



Defining the Social Worker as Consultant:


Role of consultant:

Arnaboldi (2013) identified the changing role of consultant-researchers with a 12-year interventionist project.  This study found the relevance of reform and innovations that “organizational setting” shape the role of consultant analysis across the three dimensions of purpose, participantion and learning.

Mohe and Seidl (2011)  theorize the client-consultant relationship based on the theory of social-systems by Niklas Luhmann.  This theoretical basis implicates for the way conceptualize consulting, in turn challenging traditional assumptions.  The study emphasizes that consultants can only cause 'perturbations' in clients processes which means the client manifest their own meaning instead of the consultant “finding solutions to their problems.”

Chakravorty and Hales (2012) made a implementation model that promotes program sustainability for the long term. Using a technique called Learning by Doing, this model guides the implementation of process-improvement programs. Using a combination of empirical studies and four action-research field studies, this model connects the research on process improvement, Learning by Doing, and consultancy to support program sustainability.


Managing Organizational culture:

Zheng, Yang, Mclean (2010) examined the “mediating role of knowledge management in the relationship between organizational culture, structure, strategy, and organizational effectiveness.” The findings have put into play a theoretical model that incorporates knowledge management from the scope of independent management that examines and connects internal resources and competitive advantages.

Naranjo-Valencia, Jiménez-Jiménez, and Sanz-Valle (2011) analyzed organizational culture to find out if it “fosters or inhibits” organizational innovation and the role of imitation strategies. The findings showed that organizational culture is in direct correlation with innovation and it's strategies.

Hsing-Er, McDonough, and E.F. (2011)  hypotheses were supported in this study on how leaders create an organizational culture and innovation by facilitating exploration and exploitation activities.  The tested hypotheses proved that “strategic leadership directly impacts on a knowledge-sharing culture, a knowledge-sharing culture directly impacts on innovation ambidexterity, and organizational culture mediates the strategic leadership and innovation ambidexterity relationship.”

Braunscheidel, Suresh, and Boisnier (2010) investigated the effects of organizational culture on two types of supply chain intergration: internal and external intergration. The study resulted in confirming that firm's adhocracy culture is positively associated with external integration and firms hierarchy culture is negatively associated with both internal and external integration practices.

Bellot (2011) developed a concept of organizational culture and the methods for assessing organizational culture to focus on human services instead of emphasis on traditional corporations.

Cheung, Wong, and Lam (2011) defined eight Organizational culture constructs  and they are: Goal Clarity, Coordination and Integration, Conflict Resolution, Employee Participation, Innovation Orientation, Performance Emphasis, Reward Orientation and Team orientation.

Internal integration and External adaptation:

Näslund and  Hulthen (2012) examined integration to define supply chain management integration (SCM).  The finding of this study indicated that there is not ample frameworks on how supply chains become more integrated.  They found much confusion regarding the supply chain management integration, so in turn this paper ends up giving their own definition of SCM.  With this definition the authors' show a way to facilitate organizational developments in this area.

Xiaojuan and Huang (2012) found that uncertainty avoidance can not directly affect the management innovation, but can affect it indirectly through organizational culture.  They also found that the external adaptation value and internal integration value of organization culture play key roles in the influence relationship between uncertainty avoidance and management innovation.

Zhang (2013)  uses the Symbiosis theory to provide a new way to explore a model of supply chain integration.  This paper also focuses on the realization mechanism of the model from two dimensions which were symbiosis internal integration and symbiosis external integration.

How consultants work in leadership positions:

Goldman (2012) study fills in the literature regarding specific ways to which organizational culture may impact strategic thinking in others.  The study also provides a model for scholar-practitioner inquiry, exemplifying involvement in methodology development and the interpretation of findings. It also defines the incidence of organizational leadership practices that encourages a culture of strategic thinking.

Mládková (2012) uses Lee Iacocca's concept of 9 Cs of leadership (leadership scorecard) as a basis for the research on leadership. The article provides the results of answers of 125 respondents and shows that managers in our country have great reserves in leadership techniques and skills.

Business Environments:

Commander and Svejnar (2011) reflected on the time-invariant differences in the business environment as well as other factors such as health care and education, matter more for firm performance than differences in the business environment across firms within countries.

Cordes, Richerson,and Schwesinger (2010) found that firm organizations reach a critical cognitive size in their development.  That corporate culture determines firm performance in different business environments and that cognitive human dispositions have repercussions on a industry's evolution.

Client/Employee/Consultant relationship:

Karantinou, and Hogg (2010) this study contributes to relationship management theory within services marketing by offering a more refined understanding of company-client relationships, compared with the more generic interpretations of relationships which often characterize studies of relationship management.

Alvesson, Kärreman, Sturdy, and Handley (2010) This paper draws upon three empirical cases and emphasizes three key aspects of clients in the context of consultancy projects: (a) client diversity, including, but not limited to diversity arising solely from (pre-)structured contact relations and interests; (b) processes of constructing ‘the client’ (including negotiation, conflict, and reconstruction) and the client identities which are thereby produced; and (c) the dynamics of client–consultant relations and how these influence the construction of multiple and perhaps contested client positions and identities.

Nikolova, Reihlen, and Schlapfner (2009) identify three major practices that characterize client–consultant interaction – shaping impressions, problem-solving, and negotiating expectations – and discuss their respective characteristics, activities, and contingencies.

Chelliah (2010) This paper reviews both academic and practitioner literature in relation to factors that are seen as significantly affecting consulting assignment outcomes for both client and consultant.


Arnaboldi, M. (2013), Consultant-Researchers in Public Sector Transformation: An Evolving Role. Financial Accountability & Management, 29: 140–160.

Bellot, J. (2011), Defining and Assessing Organizational Culture. Nursing Forum, 46: 29–37. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-6198.2010.00207.x

Braunscheidel, M. J., Suresh, N. C. and Boisnier, A. D. (2010), Investigating the impact of organizational culture on supply chain integration. Hum. Resour. Manage., 49: 883–911. doi: 10.1002/hrm.20381

Christian Cordes, Peter J. Richerson, Georg Schwesinger, How corporate cultures coevolve with the business environment: The case of firm growth crises and industry evolution, Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Volume 76, Issue 3, December 2010, Pages 465-480, ISSN 0167-2681, 10.1016/j.jebo.2010.09.010. (

Dag Näslund, Hana Hulthen, (2012) "Supply chain management integration: a critical analysis", Benchmarking: An International Journal, Vol. 19 Iss: 4/5, pp.481 – 501

Ellen F. Goldman, (2012) "Leadership practices that encourage strategic thinking", Journal of Strategy and Management, Vol. 5 Iss: 1, pp.25 – 40

Hsing-Er Lin; McDonough, E.F., "Investigating the Role of Leadership and Organizational Culture in Fostering Innovation Ambidexterity," Engineering Management, IEEE Transactions on , vol.58, no.3, pp.497,509, Aug. 2011 (

Jing Zhang et al., 2013, Applied Mechanics and Materials, 275-277, 2706

John Chelliah, The Psychodynamics of The Client-consultant Relationship. International Journal of Business and Information, Vol 5, No 2, (2010)

Julia C. Naranjo-Valencia, Daniel Jiménez-Jiménez, Raquel Sanz-Valle, "Innovation or imitation? The role of organizational culture", Emerald 49, (2011).

Kalipso M. Karantinou, Margaret K. Hogg, (2010) "An empirical investigation of relationship development in professional business services", Journal of Services Marketing, Vol. 23 Iss: 4, pp.249 – 260

Ludmila Mládková, Leadership in management of knowledge workers, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Volume 41, 2012, Pages 243-250, ISSN 1877-0428, 10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.04.028. (

Mats Alvesson, Dan Kärreman, Andrew Sturdy, Karen Handley, Unpacking the client(s): Constructions, positions and client–consultant dynamics, Scandinavian Journal of Management, Volume 25, Issue 3, September 2010, Pages 253-263, ISSN 0956-5221, 10.1016/j.scaman.2009.05.001. (

Michael Mohe and David Seidl Theorizing the client—consultant relationship from the perspective of social-systems theory Organization January 2011 18: 3-22, first published on December 8, 2009 doi:10.1177/1350508409353834

Natalia Nikolova, Markus Reihlen, Jan-Florian Schlapfner, Client–consultant interaction: Capturing social practices of professional service production, Scandinavian Journal of Management, Volume 25, Issue 3, September 2009, Pages 289-298, ISSN 0956-5221, 10.1016/j.scaman.2009.05.004. (

Sai On Cheung, Peter S. P. Wong, Anna L. Lam, An investigation of the relationship between organizational culture and the performance of construction organizations.Journal of Business Economics and Management 

Vol. 13, Iss. 4, 2012

Satya S. Chakravorty, Douglas N. Hales, Creating Successful Process Improvement Programs: The Roles of Consultant and Industry,
Journal of Enterprise TransformationVol. 2, Iss. 4, 2012

Schein, E. (2010). Organizational culture and leadership. (4th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Simon Commander and Jan Svejnar, Business Environment, Exports, Ownership, and Firm PerformanceReview of Economics and Statistics 2011 93:1, 309-337

Wei Zheng, Baiyin Yang, Gary N. McLean, Linking organizational culture, structure, strategy, and organizational effectiveness: Mediating role of knowledge management, Journal of Business Research, Volume 63, Issue 7, July 2010, Pages 763-771, ISSN 0148-2963, 10.1016/j.jbusres.2009.06.005. (

Wright, M. A. (2012). Interviewing Skills: GIM+ Introduction

Xiaojuan Wen; Chi Huang, "The impact of uncertainty avoidance and organizational culture on management innovation," Information Management, Innovation Management and Industrial Engineering (ICIII), 2012 International Conference on , vol.2, no., pp.331,334, 20-21 Oct. 2012 doi: 10.1109/ICIII.2012.6339846


As Consultant: What the Social Worker Already Knows


How the General Systems Theory can be used:

Brudan (2010) integrated a performance management model with the use of systems thinking, learning and integration. Stated that higher emphasis on including elements of systems thinking in educational curricula may be a possible step forward.

Conti (2010) focuses on the value creation process and on how to revisit managing for quality in the systems perspective.

Drack and Schwarz (2010) analyzed in detail 161 articles in peer reviewed journals that referred to General Systems Theory and appeared between 1995 and 2006, to see how relevant the theory is today's research.

Mingers and White (2010) reviewed the main domains of application of systems theory: strategy, information systems, organizations, production and operations, ecology and agriculture, and medicine and health. Their conclusion is that while systems may not be well established institutionally, in terms of academic departments, it is incredibly healthy in terms of the quantity and variety of its applications.

Green and McDermott (2010) discuss social work's search for coherence and the consequences that arise when a profession seeks to explain the way the world works through practice perspectives, such as the General Systems Theory.

Ecological Systems Perspective:

Dillard (2010) clarify the theoretical understanding of the concept of resilience in order to explore problems surrounding the empirical measurement and application of the concept, as well as to examine strategic examples of empirical measures and policy applications in the literature of several disciplines, fields, and professions.

Rimehaug and Heimersberg (2010) presented a framework for flexible integration of several models (Ecological Systems) and methodologies in consultation practice by choosing an approach adapted to the specific situation. They call it Situational Consultation.

Chandler, Kram  and Yip (2011) take an ecological perspective to situate and review topical areas of the literature with the intention of enhancing the understanding of how mentoring outcomes for protégés and mentors are determined not only by individual differences (e.g., personality) and dyadic factors (e.g., the quality of a relationship)—both of which represent the most frequently examined levels of analyses—but also the influences of the people from various social spheres comprising their developmental network, the larger organization of which they are a part, and macrosystem factors.

Richard, Gauvin and Raine (2010) describe the tenets of the ecological approach and highlight those aspects that have been integrated into ecological models used in health promotion.

Kemp (2011) assesses the current status of environmentally focused social work theory, research and practice and concludes that crafting a vibrant and meaningful environmental presence will require efforts at multiple levels, from developing a creative, multi-faceted and well-specified menu of practice theories, models and interventions, supported by research and practice evidence, to an enhanced focus on environmental practice within social work education.

The Use of Operational Research:

Franco and Montibeller (2010) found that the problem situation faced by the client is given to the operational research consultant, who then builds a model of the situation, solves the model to arrive at an optimal (or quasi-optimal) solution, and then provides a recommendation to the client based on the obtained solution.

Meisel and Mattfeld (2010) defined three classes of synergies and illustrate each of them by examples. The classification is based on a generic description of aims, preconditions as well as process models of Operations Research and Data Mining. It serves as a framework for the assessment of approaches at the intersection of the two procedures.

Rais and Viana (2011) survey several applications of Operations Research in the domain of Healthcare. In particular, the paper reviews key contributions addressing contemporary optimization issues in this area. It highlights current research activities, focusing on a variety of optimization problems as well as solution techniques used for solving the optimization problems.

Zachariah, Ford, Maher, Bissell, Van den Bergh, van den Boogaard, Reid, Castro, Draguez,  von Schreeb, Chakaya, Atun,  Lienhardt, Enarson and Anthony D Harries (2012) define operational research and its relation with policy and practice, identified why operational research might fail to affect policy and practice, and offer possible solutions to address these shortcomings.

Roy (2010) explains the meaning he gives to the qualifier term ”robust” and justifies his preference for the expression robustness concern rather than robustness analysis, which he feels is likely to be interpreted too narrowly.


Aurel Brudan, (2010) "Rediscovering performance management: systems, learning and integration", Measuring Business Excellence, Vol. 14 Iss: 1, pp.109 – 123


Tito Conti, (2010) "Systems thinking in quality management", The TQM Journal, Vol. 22 Iss: 4, pp.352 – 368


Drack, M. and Schwarz, G. (2010), Recent developments in general system theory. Syst. Res., 27: 601–610. doi: 10.1002/sres.1013


John Mingers, Leroy White, A review of the recent contribution of systems thinking to operational research and management science, European Journal of Operational Research, Volume 207, Issue 3, 16 December 2010, Pages 1147-1161, ISSN 0377-2217,


David Green and Fiona McDermott, Social Work from Inside and Between Complex Systems: Perspectives on Person-in-Environment for Today's Social Work

Br J Soc Work (2010) 40 (8): 2414-2430 first published online May 20, 2010 doi:10.1093/bjsw/bcq056


Dillard, Maria (2010) Toward a measure of social-ecological resilience for human communities. In: Shifting Shorelines: Adapting to the Future,The 22nd International Conference of The Coastal Society , June 13-16, 2010 , Wilmington, North Carolina.


Rimehaug, Tormod and Helmersberg, Ingunn (2010) Situational Consultation. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, Volume 20, Issue 3, Pages 185-208. DOI: 10.1080/10474412.2010.500509



Dawn E. Chandler, Kathy E. Kram, Jeffrey Yip. An Ecological Systems Perspective on Mentoring at Work: A Review and Future Prospects, The Academy of Management Annals.
Vol. 5, Iss. 1, 2011, Pages 519-570, DOI:10.1080/19416520.2011.576087


Lucie Richard, Lise Gauvin and Kim Raine. Ecological Models Revisited: Their Uses and Evolution in Health Promotion Over Two Decades. Annual Review of Public Health.Vol. 32: 307-26 (Volume publication date April 2011) December 21, 2010. DOI: 10.1146/annurev-publhealth-031210-101141


Susan P. Kemp.Recentring Environment in Social Work Practice: Necessity, Opportunity, Challenge

Br J Soc Work (2011) 41 (6): 1198-1210 doi:10.1093/bjsw/bcr119


  1. Alberto Franco, Gilberto Montibeller, Facilitated modelling in operational research, European Journal of Operational Research, Volume 205, Issue 3, 16 September 2010, Pages 489-500, ISSN 0377-2217,



Stephan Meisel, Dirk Mattfeld, Synergies of Operations Research and Data Mining, European Journal of Operational Research, Volume 206, Issue 1, 1 October 2010, Pages 1-10, ISSN 0377-2217,




Rais, A. and Viana, A. (2011), Operations Research in Healthcare: a survey. International Transactions in Operational Research, 18: 1–31. doi: 10.1111/j.1475-3995.2010.00767.x


Rony Zachariah, Nathan Ford, Dermot Maher, Karen Bissell, Rafael Van den Bergh, Wilma van den Boogaard, Tony Reid, Kenneth G Castro, Bertrand Draguez, Johan von Schreeb, Jeremiah Chakaya, Rifat Atun, Christian Lienhardt, Don A Enarson, Anthony D Harries, Is operational research delivering the goods? The journey to success in low-income countries, The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 12, Issue 5, May 2012, Pages 415-421, ISSN 1473-3099,



Bernard Roy, Robustness in operational research and decision aiding: A multi-faceted issue, European Journal of Operational Research, Volume 200, Issue 3, 1 February 2010, Pages 629-638, ISSN 0377-2217,




As Consultant: What the Social Worker Must Learn


What a Change Agent brings to the Table of Organizational Change:

Westover (2010) This article provides a brief overview of the history of change theory, followed by a discussion on differing change agent strategies and techniques to managing change and stability in organizations, including an introduction into the emergence of role of the change agent, a discussion of the implications for agents of change or stability, and a discussion of the need for anticipating how people will be affected by change.

Thomas and Hardy (2011) examined literature on resistance to organizational change and identify two dominant yet contrasting approaches: the demonizing versus the celebrating of resistance to change. They show that both of these approaches fail to address power relations adequately and, in so doing, raise practical, ethical and theoretical problems in understanding and managing change.

Stummer and Zuchi (2010) analyzed different change roles and project and program roles in literature and to identify shortcomings, present the change roles developed in the case study, reflect the necessity for an explicit definition and differentiation of change, program and project roles for the fulfillment of a transformation, and analyze the benefits and disadvantages of the application of multi-role assignments in changes.

Application of the Tran-theoretical Model:

Norcross, Krebs and Prochaska (2011) use the transtheoretical model and the stages of change, to show how they have proven useful in adapting or tailoring treatment to the individual. They define the stages and processes of change and then review previous meta-analyses on their interrelationship.

Horiuchi, Tsuda, Kim, Hong,  Park and Kim (2010) examined the relationships between stage of change, which was guided by the transtheoretical model, for stress management behavior and perceived stress and coping.

Offner, Swindler, Padula, King, Fedora and Malone (2011) provides an overview of the theoretical underpinnings being used to develop an adaptive collaboration tool that can be used to assess and influence individual behavior and group performance.

Rogers' Change Influencing Factors in Action:

Gollakota and Doshi (2011) uses Rogers Diffusion and Adoption of Innovations framework to explain the slow growth and adoption of rural telecenters in the developing world.

Peslak, Ceccucci, and Sendall (2010) studied social networking behavior using Rogers (1995) model of human behavior known as Diffusion of Innovation (DI). Specifically, findings re- veal that behavioral compatibility (COMP) with social networking, relative advantage (RA), com- plexity (CMPX) and ease of trying (TRY) are positively associated with intention to use social net- working. In addition, findings confirm that intention influences use of social networking.

Taxman and Belenko (2012)  using Everett Rogers model and culminating in recent advances in developing frameworks for change models, they detail the different models and their core components to show organizational change and the key components of the change process.

Sustainable Change:

Shirey (2011) discusses strategy execution challenges that must be addressed to lead sustainable change for nurses in a leadership position.

Arnold (2010) demonstrate that different culture types can initiate an appropriate cultural change. However, to anchor sustainability permanently within a business, stakeholder dialogue is not enough. Structural and cultural factors such as cooperative leadership and group work are necessary to pass and implement the attained information, knowledge, and learning effects into the organization as well.

Arnold (2010) highlights integrative strategies for sustainable innovations on the basis of a case analysis of three companies and examines the organisational, the cultural as well as the structural conditions for active sustainable oriented corporate policies. The study analyses internal and external explanatory factors for the occurrence of sustainable strategic change processes, the conditions for a company’s commitment to sustainability, the conditions that result in strategic change, and the capability to generate sustainability-oriented (product) innovations in medium-sized and large companies.

What is a Convener:

Shannon and Wang (2010) provides a model to demonstrate the significant role continuing educators can play in convening groups of people to unite efforts around a common mission.

Stadtler and Probst (2012) state that the broker organizations can facilitate the partnering process in public-private partnerships for development. Their findings suggest that they act as convener, mediator, and learning catalysts.

The Researcher:

Williams (2011) discusses three common research approaches, qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods, along with the various research designs commonly used when conducting research within the framework of each approach.

Tracy (2010) presents and explores eight key markers of quality in qualitative research including (a) worthy topic, (b) rich rigor, (c) sincerity, (d) credibility, (e) resonance, (f) significant contribution, (g) ethics, and (h) meaningful coherence.

Symonds and Gorard (2010) questions whether the assumptions that are used and perpetuated by mixed methods are valid. The paper calls for a critical change in how we perceive research, in order to better describe actual research processes.





Jonathan H. Westover. "Managing Organizational Change: Change Agent Strategies and Techniques to Successfully Managing the Dynamics of Stability and Change in Organizations" The International Journal of Management and Innovation 2.1 (2010): 45-50


Robyn Thomas, Cynthia Hardy, Reframing resistance to organizational change, Scandinavian Journal of Management, Volume 27, Issue 3, September 2011, Pages 322-331, ISSN 0956-5221,



Michael Stummer, Dagmar Zuchi, Developing roles in change processes – A case study from a public sector organisation, International Journal of Project Management, Volume 28, Issue 4, May 2010, Pages 384-394, ISSN 0263-7863,



Norcross, J. C., Krebs, P. M. and Prochaska, J. O. (2011), Stages of change. J. Clin. Psychol., 67: 143–154. doi: 10.1002/jclp.20758


HORIUCHI, S., TSUDA, A., KIM, E., HONG, K.-S., PARK, Y.-S. and KIM, U. (2010), Relationships between stage of change for stress management behavior and perceived stress and coping. Japanese Psychological Research, 52: 291–297. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-5884.2010.00444.x


Offner, A.; Swindler, S.; Padula, G.; King, A.; Fedora, J.; Malone, L., "Change management: Developing a tool to foster adaptive collaboration," Collaboration Technologies and Systems (CTS), 2011 International Conference on , vol., no., pp.606,611, 23-27 May 2011

doi: 10.1109/CTS.2011.5928743


Gollakota, K., & Doshi, K. (2011). Diffusion of Technological Innovations in Rural Areas. Journal of Corporate Citizenship, 2011(41), 69-82.


Peslak, A., Ceccucci, W., & Sendall, P. (2010, November). An empirical study of social networking behavior using diffusion of innovation theory. In Conference on Information Systems Applied Research (pp. 4-7).


Taxman, F. S., & Belenko, S. (2012). Theories of Organizational Change and Technology Transfer. In Implementing Evidence-Based Practices in Community Corrections and Addiction Treatment (pp. 57-90). Springer New York.


Shirey, M. R. (2011). Addressing strategy execution challenges to lead sustainable change. Journal of Nursing Administration, 41(1), 1-4.


Arnold, M. (2010). Stakeholder dialogues for sustaining cultural change. International Studies of Management and Organization, 40(3), 61-77.


Arnold, M. (2010). Corporate strategies for sustainable innovations. In Facilitating sustainable innovation through collaboration (pp. 217-232). Springer Netherlands.


Shannon, J., & Wang, T. R. (2010). A Model for University–Community Engagement: Continuing Education's Role as Convener. The Journal of Continuing Higher Education, 58(2), 108-112.


Stadtler, L., & Probst, G. (2012). How broker organizations can facilitate public–private partnerships for development. European Management Journal, 30(1), 32-46.


Williams, C. (2011). Research methods. Journal of Business & Economics Research (JBER), 5(3).


Tracy, S. J. (2010). Qualitative quality: Eight “big-tent” criteria for excellent qualitative research. Qualitative inquiry, 16(10), 837-851.


Symonds, J. E., & Gorard, S. (2010). Death of mixed methods? Or the rebirth of research as a craft. Evaluation & Research in Education, 23(2), 121-136.


Managing Your Consulting Business


Deciding On a Legal Structure for your Consulting Business:

McKenna (2012) provides a historical context for the emergence of corporate and competitive strategy as an institutional practice in both the United States and around the world, and provides insights into how important this history can be in understanding the debates among consultants and academics during strategy's emergence as an academic subject and practical application.

Battiliana, Lee, Walker and Dorsey (2012) examine the rise of hybrid organizations that combine aspects of nonprofits and for-profits and the challenges hybrids face as they attempt to integrate traditionally separate organizational models.

Secure Grant Funding, Partner with a 501c3.

Mannell (2010) this study reveals that consultants tend to interpret the nongovermental orgainizations (NGO) sector and international development through a lens of profit and efficiency, and that experience working with an NGO may actually strengthen this perspective.

Al-Tabbaa, Leach, and March (2013) discuss a new framework to assist Nonprofit organizations in developing strategic collaborations with businesses.

B-Corporations as an option:

Marquis, Klaber, and Thomason (2011) create a new sector of the economy, and are specifically focused on a three objectives: 1) building a community of Certified B Corporations (B=Benefit) that legally expand their corporate responsibilities to include consideration of diverse stakeholder interests, 2) advancing the public policies necessary to create a new corporate form called a Benefit Corporation, and 3) creating an investment rating system to help drive institutional investment to the emerging asset class of "impact investments."

Timmerman, De Jongh, and Schild (2011) this paper explains the increasing popularity of social entrepreneurship ( B-Corporations) and analyzes its company law consequences.

Sole Proprietorship Structure, On Your Own:

O'Kelley (2011) this article demonstrates that the equation of “the firm” and “the corporation” is a fundamental error which masks a principal role of corporation law – providing a substitute or surrogate for the sole proprietor in firms that find it desirable to split ownership among more than one individual – and which encourages the view that corporation law protects, or should protect, the interests of “other constituencies.”

Cothran, Wysocki, and Mulkey (2010) fact sheet presents ten questions that encapsulate the most important issues that must be addressed by those interested in starting a business.

Liability; (LLC):

DeMarzo, Livdan and Tchistyi (2011) model can explain why suboptimal risk- taking can emerge even when investors are fully rational and managers are compensated optimally. They also explore the model’s implications for the dynamics of firm growth.

Shirkman (2011) Used qualitative-interpretivist exploratory interviewing methodology, this is one of the first qualitative research studies on low-profit limited liability companies.

Using Social Media as a Marketing Tool:

Kaplan and Haenlein (2010) provide a classification of Social Media which groups applications currently subsumed under the generalized term into more specific categories by characteristic: collaborative projects, blogs, content communities, social networking sites, virtual game worlds, and virtual social worlds. Then they present 10 pieces of advice for companies which decide to utilize Social Media.

Packer (2011) provides you an outline for developing and managing a successful Social Media Marketing program. They also examine what Social Media Marketing is and how to use social media in your marketing strategy.

Business Contracts:

Bolton and Faure-Grimaud (2010) propose a model of equilibrium contracting between two agents who are “boundedly rational” in the sense that they face time costs of deliberating current and future transactions.

Weber and Mayer (2011) provide new research opportunities in areas that use contracts to achieve desired outcomes.

How to Calculate your Consultant Fees:

Chitakornkijsil (2010) in this study, first the nature and objectives of management consulting are considered, such as consultant fees and marketing.

Biech (2011) this book talks about everything from starting your business of being a consultant to what you need to charge for your services.


Generalist vs. Expertise:

Kelly,  Mastroeni, Conway,  Monks,  Truss, Flood and Hannon (2011) unpacks the concepts of specialist and generalist human capital from an employee perspective and challenges the sharp distinction that is made between specialist and generalist human capital.

Wang and Murnighan (2013) introduces the generalist bias – a tendency to reward and select people with general skills when complementary, specialized skills are needed.



Christopher McKenna (2012), Strategy Followed Structure: Management Consulting and the Creation of a Market for “Strategy,” 1950–2000, in Steven J. Kahl, Brian S. Silverman, Michael A. Cusumano (ed.) History and Strategy (Advances in Strategic Management, Volume 29), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, pp.153-186


Battiliana, J., Lee, M., Walker, J., & Dorsey, C. (2012). In search of the hybrid ideal. Stanford Social Innovation Review, 10(3), 50-55.


Mannell, J. (2010), Are the Sectors Compatible? International Development Work and Lessons for a Business–Nonprofit Partnership Framework. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 40: 1106–1122. doi: 10.1111/j.1559-1816.2010.00612.x


Al-Tabbaa, O., Leach, D., & March, J. (2013). Collaboration between nonprofit and business sectors: A framework to guide strategy development for nonprofit organizations. Voluntas: In. J. of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, Forthcoming.


Marquis, C., Klaber, A., & Thomason, B. (2011). B Lab: Building a new sector of the economy. Harvard Business School Organizational Behavior Unit Case, (411-047).


Timmerman, L., De Jongh, M., & Schild, A. (2011). The Rise of the Social Enterprise: How Social Enterprises Are Changing Company Law Worldwide. THE LAW OF THE FUTURE: A COLLECTION OF'THINK PIECES,'S. Muller, ed., Torkel Opsahl Academic ePublisher.


O'Kelley, C. R. (2011). The Theory of the Firm: The Corporation as Sole-Proprietor Surrogate. Available at SSRN 1858936.


Cothran, H. M., Wysocki, A., & Mulkey, D. (2010). Ten Frequently Asked Questions for Small Business Start-Ups.


DeMarzo, P. M., Livdan, D., & Tchistyi, A. (2011). Risking Other People’s Money: Gambling, Limited Liability, and Optimal Incentives. University of California, Berkeley.


Shirkman, J. (2011). The Viability of the Low-Profit Limited Liability Company: What it Will Take for the L3C to Become Social Entrepreneurship's Next Big Thing (Doctoral dissertation, Ohio University Honors Tutorial College).


Kaplan, A. M., & Haenlein, M. (2010). Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media. Business horizons, 53(1), 59-68.


Packer, R. (2011). Social Media Marketing. The Art of Conversational Sales. WSI.


Bolton, P., & Faure-Grimaud, A. (2010). Satisficing contracts. The Review of Economic Studies, 77(3), 937-971.


Weber, L., & Mayer, K. J. (2011). Designing effective contracts: exploring the influence of framing and expectations. Academy of Management Review, 36(1), 53-75.


Chitakornkijsil, P. (2010). Management consulting: a professional experience. The International Journal of Organization Innovation, 3(3), 6-21.


Biech, E. (2011). The business of consulting: The basics and beyond. Wiley. Com.


Gráinne Kelly, Michele Mastroeni, Edel Conway, Kathy Monks, Katie Truss, Patrick Flood, Enda Hannon, (2011) "Combining diverse knowledge: knowledge workers' experience of specialist and generalist roles", Personnel Review, Vol. 40 Iss: 5, pp.607 – 624


Wang, L., & Keith Murnighan, J. (2013). The generalist bias. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 120(1), 47-61.


4 Contexts for the Social Worker as Consultant


Development of a Brand:

Ha, Janda and Muthaly (2010) examine the development of brand equity by evaluating the influences of brand associations, perceived quality, satisfaction, and brand loyalty. Based on insights from prior research, four models are proposed, which focus on alternative relationships among these four factors.

Ok, Choi and Hyun (2011) suggest that perceived utilitarian value shapes brand credibility, and perceived hedonic and social value enhance brand prestige. In turn, brand credibility and brand prestige had positive effects on brand trust.

Ruževičiūtė and Ruževičius (2010) wrote a model that covers several brand characteristics like brand awareness, brand image, product quality, product price and loyalty for the brand. In the process of goal achievement brand attributes and their interaction were identified, the weight of every attribute in the overall brand equity was measured as well as basic rates of the total brand equity were estimated.


Marketing of your Brand:

O'Cass and Weerawardena (2010) suggest that market learning impacts brand performance through marketing capability.

Wang and Tzeng (2012) combin models and methods to clarify the interrelated relationships of brand marketing and find the problems or gaps; then, evaluated the situation to reduce the gaps in order to achieve the aspired levels and rank the priorities in brand marketing strategies.

Huang and Sarigöllü (2012) investigates the effects of marketing mix elements on brand awareness. Results reveal consumers' brand usage experiences contribute to brand awareness, implying experience precedes awareness in some contexts.

Life Coaching: Theory and Practice:

Palmer (2012) covers the basic theories underpinning the multimodal approach and illustrates the link between the theory and practice. Key multimodal strategies are covered including modality profiles, structural profiles, tracking and bridging.

Mosca, Fazzari and Buzza (2010) focuses on the need for these sales supervisors/managers to change their previously used tactics and embrace a new, proactive approach of “Coaching” their sales employees.

Ely, Boyce, Nelson, Zaccaro, Hernez-Broome and Whyman (2010) presents an integrated framework of coaching evaluation that includes formative evaluations of the client, coach, client–coach relationship, and coaching process, as well as summative evaluations based on coaching outcomes.

Segers, Vloeberghs, Henderickx and Inceoglu (2011) offer a theoretical coaching cube that helps to structure and understand the coaching industry

Harness Your Brainpower: Solutions as Your Product:

Potter, McClure and Sellers (2010) describes a system that would harness the brainpower of vast numbers of humans and orchestrate their efforts could be used to solve hard problems that are beyond the reach of computational methods.

Jacob Kleipass and Pohl consider some extant theoretical and empirical findings to back up a general framework for understanding customer satisfaction with respect to the business of solutions.

Differences between Therapy and Life Coaching:

Cremona (2010) defined the boundary between coaching and therapy. Their study's findings also emphasized the importance of coach education around emotions, in particular, for coaches to understand the connection between emotions and change, leadership and motivation.

Gilmore and Schible give a great description or what a life coach is and what a life coach is not. They make the distinction between counseling, consulting and life coaching.

Social Capital in Action:

Payne, Moore, Griffis and Autry (2011) with a central objective of advancing social capital’s potential as a multilevel theoretical perspective, the authors make two contributions to the management literature. First, the authors comprehensively review two decades of management research to highlight how social capital has been empirically applied across levels of analysis. Second, based on the shortcomings and challenges revealed through the literature review, the authors identify and discuss avenues for future multilevel research, including suggestions for both macro and micro researchers.

Ram (2010) using several different samples, model specifications, and variable proxies, this study revisits the role of social capital in generating life satisfaction (happiness).



Capacity Building as a Model:

Simmons, Reynolds and Swinburn (2011) wrote a formula that can be utilized by communities needing to define capacity building for their own purposes, in their own contexts.

Simister and Smith (2010) examines both theory and current practice, and discusses some of the key barriers to progress. The paper is primarily concerned with capacity building within civil society organizations (CSOs), although many of the lessons apply equally to organisations in the commercial or state sectors.

The Instrument of Social Entrepreneurship:

Corner and Ho (2010) extend existing research on opportunity identification in the social entrepreneurship literature through empirically examining this phenomenon.

Santos, F. M. (2012) provides a conceptual framework that allows understanding the growing phenomena of social entrepreneurship and its role in the functioning of modern society.





Ha, H. Y., Janda, S., & Muthaly, S. (2010). Development of brand equity: evaluation of four alternative models. The Service Industries Journal, 30(6), 911-928.


Ok, C., Choi, Y. G., & Hyun, S. S. (2011). Roles of Brand Value Perception in the Development of Brand Credibility and Brand Prestige.


Ruževičiūtė, R., & Ruževičius, J. (2010). Brand equity integrated evaluation model: consumer-based approach. Economics and Management, 15, 719-725.


O'Cass, A., & Weerawardena, J. (2010). The effects of perceived industry competitive intensity and marketing-related capabilities: Drivers of superior brand performance. Industrial Marketing Management, 39(4), 571-581.


Wang, Y. L., & Tzeng, G. H. (2012). Brand marketing for creating brand value based on a MCDM model combining DEMATEL with ANP and VIKOR methods. Expert Systems with Applications, 39(5), 5600-5615.


Huang, R., & Sarigöllü, E. (2012). How brand awareness relates to market outcome, brand equity, and the marketing mix. Journal of Business Research, 65(1), 92-99.


Palmer, S. (2012). Multimodal coaching and its application to workplace, life and health coaching. Coaching Psykologi-The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology, 2(1).


Mosca, J. B., Fazzari, A., & Buzza, J. (2010). Coaching to win: A systematic approach to achieving productivity through coaching. Journal of Business & Economics Research (JBER), 8(5).


Ely, K., Boyce, L. A., Nelson, J. K., Zaccaro, S. J., Hernez-Broome, G., & Whyman, W. (2010). Evaluating leadership coaching: A review and integrated framework. The Leadership Quarterly, 21(4), 585-599.


Segers, J., Vloeberghs, D., Henderickx, E., & Inceoglu, I. (2011). Structuring and understanding the coaching industry: The coaching cube. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 10(2), 204-221.


Potter, A., McClure, M., & Sellers, K. (2010, May). Mass collaboration problem solving: A new approach to wicked problems. In Collaborative Technologies and Systems (CTS), 2010 International Symposium on (pp. 398-407). IEEE.


Jacob, F., Kleipass, U., & Pohl, A. Nature and Role of Customer Satisfaction in the Business of Solutions.


Cremona, K. (2010). Coaching and emotions: an exploration of how coaches engage and think about emotion. Coaching: An International Journal of Theory, Research and Practice, 3(1), 46-59.


Gilmore, M., & Schible, L. LIFE COACHING HANDBOOK.


Payne, G. T., Moore, C. B., Griffis, S. E., & Autry, C. W. (2011). Multilevel challenges and opportunities in social capital research. Journal of Management, 37(2), 491-520.


Ram, R. (2010). Social capital and happiness: Additional cross-country evidence. Journal of Happiness Studies, 11(4), 409-418.


Simmons, A., Reynolds, R. C., & Swinburn, B. (2011). Defining community capacity building: Is it possible?. Preventive medicine, 52(3), 193-199.


Simister, N., & Smith, R. (2010). Monitoring and Evaluating Capacity Building: Is it really that difficult?.


Corner, P. D., & Ho, M. (2010). How opportunities develop in social entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship theory and practice, 34(4), 635-659.


Santos, F. M. (2012). A positive theory of social entrepreneurship. Journal of business ethics, 111(3), 335-351.



Consulting with Start-Ups


Got to have that Business Plan:

Brinckmann, Grichnik and Kapsa (2010) results indicate that planning is beneficial, yet contextual factors such as newness of the firms and the cultural environment of firms significantly impact the relationship.

Neck and Greene (2011) explore three “worlds” that entrepreneurship educators generally teach in and introduce a new frontier where we discuss teaching entrepreneurship as a method.

Schaper, Volery, Weber and Lewis (2010) provides the theoretical and practical knowledge needed to successfully own and manage a new, small or growing business venture.

Burke, Fraser and Greene (2010) investigate the multiple effects of writing a business plan prior to start-up on new venture performance. They argue that the impact of business plans depends on the purpose for and circumstances in which they are being used.

Chwolka and Raith (2012) in this paper the authors analyze business planning from the perspective of the nascent entrepreneur. They measure its value for the entrepreneur at the point where he/she must decide whether or not to plan, and they contrast the  results with empirical studies that compare firms' performance after market entry.


Understanding a Non-compete Clause:

Makkar and Kumar (2012) this article studies law relating to various negative covenants common in agreements, and recent court judgments on their validity and enforceability.

Horwitz and Horwitz (2013) offer practical tips on drafting and enforcing non-competition clauses in employee agreements.

Intellectual Property Rights and More:

Dinopoulos and Segerstrom (2010) this paper develops a model of North–South trade with multinational firms and economic growth in order to analyze formally the effects of stronger intellectual property rights  protection in developing countries.

Buccafusco and Sprigman (2010) results suggest that the preferences of Intellectual Property creators, owners, and purchasers are unstable and dependent on the initial distribution of property rights in creative works, and large gaps arise between purchasers’ willingness to pay and sellers’ willingness to accept even though the poems are non-rival property and the contemplated alienation of the property is therefore only partial.

Furukawa (2010) shows in an endogenous growth model without scale effects that the relationship between intellectual property protection and innovation can be inverted-U-shaped.

Acemoglu and Akcigit (2012) develop a dynamic framework for the study of the interactions between Intellectual Property Rights and competition, in particular to understand the impact of such policies on future incentives.

Pitkethly (2012) showed the importance of promoting Intellectual Property awareness not just to firms but also within firms and that promoting Intellectual Property awareness to smaller companies is vital to the system’s success.

Expertise and Credibility:

Alcañiz, Cáceres and Pérez (2010) suggest that image fit and altruistic attribution are cues that consumers use to evaluate company trustworthiness when linking to a social cause; functional fit significantly influences perceived company expertise but not trustworthiness; and  trustworthiness has more weight than expertise in judgments about corporate social responsibility.

Wang and Yang (2010) investigates the impact of brand credibility, composed of trustworthiness, expertise, and attractiveness, on consumers’ brand purchase intention in emerging economies.

Burgman, Carr, Godden, Gregory, McBride, Flander, and Maguire (2011) outline the limitations of conventional definitions of expertise and describe how these requirements can sometimes exclude people with useful knowledge.

Al-Sharawneh, Sinnappan and Williams (2013) propose a new approach to identify social network leaders based on their credibility which is drawn from their trustworthiness and expertise utilizing the “Follow the Leader” model based on the content quality generated by social network members.

Anders Ericsson  and Towne (2010) distinguishes two research approaches to the study of expertise. The traditional approach assumes a steady progression from novice to expert as a function of training as well as years of experience often without measures of reproducible skill. A second and more recent one focuses on the identification of individuals with reproducibly superior performance for representative tasks that capture expertise in the domain.

Don't Forget Financial Planning:

Brinkman and Morgan (2010) discuss how environmental trends, both external and internal, are likely to impact future financial planning, the several ways in which financial planning can add value in the decision-making process, and how organizational context influences financial planning.

Lusardi and Mitchell (2011) this paper focuses on key lessons for financial decision-making, exploring how financial literacy can enhance peoples’ skills and abilities to make more informed economic choices.




Brinckmann, J., Grichnik, D., & Kapsa, D. (2010). Should entrepreneurs plan or just storm the castle? A meta-analysis on contextual factors impacting the business planning–performance relationship in small firms. Journal of Business Venturing, 25(1), 24-40.


Neck, H. M., & Greene, P. G. (2011). Entrepreneurship education: known worlds and new frontiers. Journal of Small Business Management, 49(1), 55-70.


Schaper, M., Volery, T., Weber, P., & Lewis, K. (2010). Entrepreneurship and small business.


Burke, A., Fraser, S., & Greene, F. J. (2010). The multiple effects of business planning on new venture performance. Journal of Management Studies, 47(3), 391-415.


Chwolka, A., & Raith, M. G. (2012). The value of business planning before start-up—A decision-theoretical perspective. Journal of Business Venturing, 27(3), 385-399.


Makkar, K., & Kumar, A. (2012). Enforceability of Non-Solicit, Non-Compete and Non-Disclosure Clauses in Light of Restraint of Trade Doctrine. Corporate Law Adviser (2012), 107.


Horwitz, L., & Horwitz, E. (2013). Drafting and Enforcing Noncompetition Clauses for Employees. Intellectual Property Counseling & Litigation, 1.


Dinopoulos, E., & Segerstrom, P. (2010). Intellectual property rights, multinational firms and economic growth. Journal of Development Economics, 92(1), 13-27.


Buccafusco, C. J., & Sprigman, C. (2010). Valuing Intellectual Property: An Experiment. Cornell Law Review, 96, 1.


Furukawa, Y. (2010). Intellectual property protection and innovation: an inverted-U relationship. Economics Letters, 109(2), 99-101.


Acemoglu, D., & Akcigit, U. (2012). Intellectual property rights policy, competition and innovation. Journal of the European Economic Association, 10(1), 1-42.


Pitkethly, R. H. (2012). Intellectual property awareness. International Journal of Technology Management, 59(3), 163-179.


Alcañiz, E. B., Cáceres, R. C., & Pérez, R. C. (2010). Alliances between brands and social causes: The influence of company credibility on social responsibility image. Journal of Business Ethics, 96(2), 169-186.


Wang, X., & Yang, Z. (2010). The effect of brand credibility on consumers’ brand purchase intention in emerging economies: the moderating role of brand awareness and brand image. Journal of Global Marketing, 23(3), 177-188.


Burgman, M., Carr, A., Godden, L., Gregory, R., McBride, M., Flander, L., & Maguire, L. (2011). Redefining expertise and improving ecological judgment. Conservation Letters, 4(2), 81-87.


Al-Sharawneh, J., Sinnappan, S., & Williams, M. A. (2013). Credibility-Based Twitter Social Network Analysis. In Web Technologies and Applications (pp. 323-331). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.


Anders Ericsson, K., & Towne, T. J. (2010). Expertise. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science, 1(3), 404-416.


Brinkman, P. T., & Morgan, A. W. (2010). Financial Planning: Strategies and Lessons Learned. Planning for Higher Education, 38(3), 5-14.


Lusardi, A., & Mitchell, O. S. (2011). The outlook for financial literacy (No. w17077). National Bureau of Economic Research.


Ethics of the Social Worker as Consultant


Social Work Code of Ethics Collaboration:

Tam, Coleman and Boey (2012) identified a 5-factor solution on professional suitability: social consciousness suitability, ethical suitability, practice suitability, and personal suitability, and distractors.

Cole (2012) talk about how there are benefits and tensions when a social worker and a lawyer collaborate.  They offer potential solutions to give social workers improved ethical guidance for use in a law clinic setting.

Yong-juan (2011) this paper summarizes the implementation and accountability system of the social work code of ethics.

Dudziak and Profitt (2012) this article the authors explore the gap between education and action in putting the social work core value of social justice into practice.



Tam, D. M., Coleman, H., & Boey, K. W. (2012). Professional Suitability for Social Work Practice A Factor Analysis. Research on Social Work Practice, 22(2), 227-239.


Cole, P. L. (2012). You want me to do what? Ethical practice within interdisciplinary collaborations. Journal of Social Work Values and Ethics, 9(1).


Yong-juan, W. E. I. (2011). The Implementation and Accountability System of Social Work Code of Ethics. Journal of Social Work, 10, 004.


Dudziak, S., & Profitt, N. J. (2012). Group Work and Social Justice: Designing Pedagogy for Social Change. Social Work With Groups, 35(3), 235-252.



Educating Social Work Consultants


Leadership and Culture Change:

Zhang and Bartol (2010) found that empowering leadership positively affected psychological empowerment, which in turn influenced both intrinsic motivation and creative process engagement.

Morgeson, DeRue and Karam (2010) the authors describe 15 team leadership functions that help teams satisfy their critical needs and regulate their behavior in the service of goal accomplishment.

Human Nature and Behavior Change:

Tuomainen and Candolin (2011) talk about having a better understanding of the mechanisms of behavioral responses and their causes and consequences could improve our ability to predict the effects of human-induced environmental change on individual species and on biodiversity.

Osman (2010) objective of this article is to review theoretical developments and empirical work on Complex Dynamic Control (CDC) tasks, and to introduce a novel framework (monitoring and control framework) as a tool for integrating theory and findings. The main thesis of the monitoring and control framework is that CDC tasks are characteristically uncertain environments, and subjective judgments of uncertainty guide the way in which monitoring and control behaviors attempt to reduce it.

Social Mechanisms:

Hedström and Ylikoski (2010) discuss social mechanisms and mechanism-based explanations and critically review the most important philosophical and social science contributions to the mechanism approach.

Little (2010) identify and analyze the philosophical and conceptual conditions that are involved in postulating causal relations among meso-historical entities, structures, and processes.




Zhang, X., & Bartol, K. M. (2010). Linking empowering leadership and employee creativity: The influence of psychological empowerment, intrinsic motivation, and creative process engagement. Academy of Management Journal, 53(1), 107-128.


Morgeson, F. P., DeRue, D. S., & Karam, E. P. (2010). Leadership in teams: A functional approach to understanding leadership structures and processes. Journal of Management, 36(1), 5-39.


Tuomainen, U., & Candolin, U. (2011). Behavioural responses to human‐induced environmental change. Biological Reviews, 86(3), 640-657.


Osman, M. (2010). Controlling uncertainty: a review of human behavior in complex dynamic environments. Psychological Bulletin, 136(1), 65.


Hedström, P., & Ylikoski, P. (2010). Causal mechanisms in the social sciences. Annual Review of Sociology, 36, 49-67.


Little, D. (2010). Causal mechanisms. In New Contributions to the Philosophy of History (pp. 97-120). Springer Netherlands.